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100 thoughts on “The s-Process – Sixty Symbols

  1. Isn't it possible that element above uranium could be made in supernovae even though the half lives are only a fraction of a second?

  2. I got this email today and Brady's voice (inside my head) told me: "Brandon, check out the latest video from your channel subscriptions for Oct 25, 2016."

  3. When neutron are on their own they have a half life of 15 minutes or so but when they are in an atomic nucleus their decay rate slows down or even stops. How does that work?

  4. I am grateful for this additional knowledge. How could I ever see Barium again as just another run of the mill element!

  5. actually, the production site of heavy elements, like lead, and the site of the r-process, is still under review by the scientific community.
    The predominant opinion is that comes from neutron star merging and releasing loads of neutron enrich material that then decays.
    Modern supernovae simulation disprove the r-process in the supernovae. it is intuitive to associate r-process to supernovae, is the reason why in the '60 to the '90s they have been associated with heavy elements productions, but simply does not compute.
    you have to go, maybe, to magneto-driven ones which are pretty rare and difficult to understand…

  6. Those man made transuranium elements are made in supernovas. I had read about curium and californium detection in space.

  7. Great video as always! One thing though – in beta decay, a beta particle and an antineutrino, not a neutrino, would be produced.

  8. Correction of your Cosmic Periodic Table: Elements made in small stars can just as easily be made in large stars. You can bet Carbon made in small stars is also made in large stars.

  9. So you can only make barium using the s-process? What about just smashing the nuclei together during a supernova? Surely these atoms are made by these processes… plus nuclei being smashed together during supernovae, and the only difference is that the s and r-processes affected the abundances of these atoms?

  10. I recall reading not to long ago that some heavy metals (most notably gold) were only produced in the merger of two neutron stars. Do you have any comment on this?

  11. Why do same kinds of elements like to stick together? Why is there naturally occuring gold ore, for example, in big solid chunks, when supernovaes are a total mess? How and why do the same kinds of atoms find each other?

  12. Elements can also be created as unstable heavy elements created during a supernova undergo fission or alpha decay. You forgot to mention that in the video.

  13. 2:50. i dispute that everything heavier gets made in supernovae. how is it not possible for iron to combine with Helium in a star to make something heavier?

  14. What a great video!!!! It explained the gaps in my "where those extra heavy elements came from" but the "its a long journey" really brought it home!

  15. I knew it.
    I was having a discussion with my dad about this very topic and I came to think of beta decay as a means of producing new elements. He wasn't sure.
    Thanks for making me sure.

  16. That's really fascinating. I've pondered the question (regarding how elements bigger than iron are made) myself a few times, but for whatever reason, I didn't look it up.

    What I still wonder, is if a neutron decays into a proton, the new element would be a neutron short, wouldn't it? What is it that makes them decay? And how does this occur in radioactive isotopes?

  17. But, if WE have a sample of barium then it must have formed in a star that eventually went super nova, right? If not, that barium would be forever trapped in the star and would not have ever migrated to what is now earth.

  18. this was fascinating. From this, I wonder how we are so fortunate to have all these elements on this planet. there must be many planets that only have a few elements by comparison.

  19. Do larger supernovae with higher neutron flux produce heavier elements than smaller, lower flux supernovae through the R process?

  20. That human made section of the periodic table really puts things into perspective: the more complex the universe gets (us!), the heaver the elements become!

  21. Something doesn't add up here. The earth is nearly 50% oxygen, and the sun is 1/3 the age of the universe. When a star explodes only a tiny proportion of it's contents would be oxygen. So how did so much oxygen get into our solar system after [less than] 3 star cycles?

  22. At 8mins 30 there's a caption which says the s-process does not occur in our Sun, but WILL in the distant future. I thought that the S process requires a neutron flux, and that is usually the result of carbon burning – and the Sun is too small a star to experience Carbon burning. Is this a mistake, or am I wrong?

  23. Professor Merrifield’s comment about the astronomers’ periodic table: “I’m only showing this because it really annoys chemists.”
    Pun intended.

  24. It's true. I used neutron capture and beta decay to create about 50lbs of gold under my bed. The problem was the next morning they had decayed to jelly beans and were covered w/ ants.

  25. So what is all the recent fuzz about neutron star merges making large amounts of gold and other heavy elements about? Is that the r-process? or something else?

  26. I like how I always feel smarter after watching these videos. Too many other youtube videos just give you the basics, but you guys get into detail. <3

  27. So, it seems that the existence of all the elements (below the man made ones) through these various means, says something about what the fundamental constants must be.

  28. He speaks of the s and r process as if it were established fact, however both are theoretical, never having been observed and never replicated in the lab. Although the math seems to add up. They never point out the flaws in these equations..both may be true, and neither may be true. Just look at the HR diagram. How incomplete is that?

  29. These men talk as if they have all the answers. Nobody knows the following: what is Energy. What is a Photon. How do almost massless Electrons emit a massless Photon..is the Electron a wave or a particle…how does a Pion appear out of nothing. How does a Pion keep a matter-antimatter particles together. And so many others. When it comes to the Atom. We know next to nothing.

  30. Great explanation, always useful info…
    I've a question along these lines… I guess a lot of the heaviest elements on earth have worked their way down to the gravitational centre of the earth.. Are there nuclear reactions taking place there and are any neutron-accreting?
    🙂 NEAL

  31. If not via a super nova, how would the elements reach us? I’ve always assumed those elements not blown out into space via a super nova would be trapped forever in whatever star formed them… or in the white dwarf left over.

  32. So someday stars will have used up pretty much all the h and he in the universe? And then there will be generations of stars quite a bit different from what we see today? Say a lithium star?

  33. OK … so the S process is carried out in stars that DO NOT go supernova… what is the end result of those stars if not supernova? A white dwarf I suspect. So, it follows… if not supernova, how did all those elements get out of the white dwarf?

  34. "There are lots of everything in supernovae, it's a complete mess." This is one of my favourite quotes from this channel.

  35. and maybe sixty symbols can do a video on where the heat of the earth's core comes from, also with the general heat flow in the earth

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